一.虛擬語氣

虛擬語氣表示說話人的主觀愿望、猜疑、建議或與事實不符的假設等,而不表示客觀存在的事實。虛擬語氣是由句中的謂語動詞的特殊形式表示出來的。

虛擬語氣主要分為與現在事實相反,與過去事實相反以及與將來事實相反三個種類。讓我們一一來看下它們的結構和用法吧!

1、表示與現在事實相反的情況

從句:If+主語+動詞一般過去時(Be動詞用were)

主句:主語+ should/would/might/could+do:

If I were you,I would take an umbrella.
如果我是你,我會帶把傘。(事實:我不可能是你)

If I knew his telephone number,I would tell you.
如果我知道他的電話號碼,我就會告訴你。(事實:不知道)

If there were no air or water,there would be no living things on the earth.
如果沒有水和空氣,地球上就不會有生物。(事實:地球上既有空氣也有水)

If I had any money with me,I could lend you some.
如果我帶錢了,我就會借給你些。(事實:沒有帶錢)

If he studied harder,he might pass the exam.
如果他再努力些,就能通過考試了。(事實:沒有努力)

If I were you, I'd wear a shirt and tie.
如果我是你,我就會穿襯衫和領帶。(事實:我并不是你)

2、表示與過去事實相反的情況

從句:If+主語+had+done

主句:主語+should/would/might/could+have done

eg:If I had got there earlier,I should/would have met her.
如果我早到那兒,我就會見到她。(事實:去晚了)

If he had taken my advice,he would not have made such a mistake.
如果他聽我的勸告的話,就不會犯這樣的錯誤了。
(事實:沒有聽我的話)

3、表示與將來事實相反

從句:①if+主語+were to do

②if+主語+should+do

③if+主語+動詞一般過去式(be動詞用were)

主句:主語+should/would/might/could+do

eg:If he should come here tomorrow,I would talk to him.
如果他明天來這兒的話,我就跟他談談。(事實:來的可能性很小,不可能)

If there were a heavy snow next Sunday,we would go skating.
如果下周日下大雪,我們就去滑冰。(事實:下雪可能性很小,不可能)

If she were to be here next Monday,I would tell her about the matter.
如果她下周一來這兒的話,我就會告訴她這件事的始末。(事實:來的可能性很小,不可能)

除了以上三種主要情況,虛擬語氣還有以下幾種結構和用法哦。

1、 當從句的謂語動詞含有were,should,had時,if可以省略,這時從句要用倒裝語序,即把were,should,had等詞置于句首,這種多用于書面語。

eg:Should he agree to go there,we would send him there.
要是他答應去的話,我們就派他去了。

Were she here,she would agree with us.
如果她在這兒的話,她會同意我們的。

Had he learnt about computers,we would have hired him to work here.
如果他懂一些電腦知識的話,我們已經聘用他來這里工作了。

2、非真實條件句中的條件從句有時不表達出來,只暗含在副詞、介詞短語、上下文或其他方式表示出來,這種句子叫做含蓄條件句,在多數情況下,條件會暗含在短語中,如without…,but for…(要不是因為...)等

eg:

But for his help,we would be working now.
要不是他的幫助,我們還會在工作呢。

Without your instruction,I would not have made such great progress.
要是沒有你的指導,我不會取得如此大的進步。

We didn't know his telephone number,otherwise we would have telephoned him.
我們不知道他的電話號碼,否則我們就會給他打電話。

3、 有時,虛擬條件語氣的從句中,主、從句可以省略其中的一個,來表示說話人的一種強烈的感情。

①省略從句

He would have finished it.
他本該完成了。

You could have passed this exam.
你本能通過這次考試的。

②省略主句

If I were at home now.
要是我現在在家里該多好啊。

If only I had got it.
我要是得到它了該多好啊。

4.注意,在虛擬語氣的從句中,動詞be的過去時態一律用were,不用was。

If I were you,I would go to look for him.
如果我是你,就會去找他。

二.倒裝句

在英語中,主語和謂語是句子的核心,它們之間有兩種語序:一是主語在謂語之前稱為自然語序(Natural Order);二是主語在謂語之后則稱為倒裝語序(Inverted Order)。而倒裝語序中又有完全倒裝(Full Inversion)和部分倒裝(Partial Inversion)

1.完全倒裝(Full Inversion):又稱"全部倒裝",是指將句子中的謂語全部置于主語之前。此結構通常只用于一般現在時和一般過去時。

①謂語+主語+……
There be(的各種形式)+主語(+地點或時間狀語)
例子:

There was a drop in the temperature.
溫度下降了。

There are birds singing in the tree.
鳥兒在樹上唱歌。

②副詞+謂語動詞+名詞主語+……
例子:

Out rushed a young lady.
一個年輕的女士沖了出來。

③過去分詞或現在分詞+be動詞的各種形式+主語+……
例子:

Scattered on the floor were several books and magazines.
幾本書和雜志散落在地板上。

2.部分倒裝(Partial Inversion)(又稱半倒裝句):指將謂語的一部分如助動詞或情態動詞倒裝至主語之前,而謂語動詞無變化。如果句中的謂語沒有助動詞或情態動詞,則需添加助動詞do,does或did,并將其置于主語之前。
例如:

Nor did he let the disease stop him from living the kind of life he has always dreamt about.
疾病沒有使他放棄過上夢想中的生活。

部分倒裝也有以下幾種常見類型:

1.?? ?以否定詞開頭的句子要求部分倒裝。注意下列句子中助動詞或情態動詞提前、甚至補充助動詞的用法:
例:

Not until yesterday did little John change his mind.
小約翰直到昨天才改變了主意。

2.以否定副詞開頭并加狀語放在句首的句子要求部分倒裝。這些否定副詞有barely, hardly, little, seldom, scarcely…… when, never, no sooner…… than, rarely, no more, not nearly, not only等以及only。
例:

Only in the country can you learn the “true English”.
只有處在本國,你才能學到“真正的英語。”

3.介詞+no+名詞的結構中需要用部分倒裝,這些結構包括at no time; by no means; by no manner of means; for no reason; in no case; in/under no circumstances; in no sense; in no way; on no account; on no consideration; at no point
例:

Under no circumstances should you lend Paul any money.
無論如何,你都應該把錢借給保羅。

4. 由as引導的部分倒裝句:
a) 當as作為比較意義時,即用于as + adj./ adv. + as結構中時,如果把第一個as省略掉,就形成部分倒裝句。
例:

Cautious as the rest of her family (was) , she didn't seem willing to give an immediate reply to my question.
正如她家里人一樣謹慎小心,她似乎不愿意立即回答我的問題。

She charged the stairs, quick as a rabbit (ran).
她跑上樓去,跑得象兔子那么快!

b) 當 as引導讓步狀語時,和although, though一樣,當用作“盡管”之義時,可以用于部分倒裝句。

Hard as he worked, he did not pass the exam.
雖然他很用功,但他還是沒及格。

c) 表示原因時,為了強調起見,也可以倒裝。
例:

Tired as he was, we decided not to disturb him.
因為他太累了,我們決定不打擾他。

d) 等于so時,意義是“也,也是”
例:

She worked hard, so/ as did her husband.
她工作很努力,她的丈夫工作也很努力。

三.獨立主格

獨立主格,首先它是一個“格”,而不是一個“句子”,在英語中任何一個句子都要有主謂結構,而在這個結構中,沒有真正的主語和謂語動詞,但又在邏輯上構成主謂或主表關系。

獨立主格結構不是主謂完整的簡單句,而只是一個短語。

其公式為:名詞/名詞短語/代詞+不定式/ing分詞/ed分詞/形容詞/副詞/介詞短語。名詞前也可以加with。

獨立主格結構主要用于描繪性文字中,其作用相當于一個狀語從句,常用來表示時間、原因、條件、行為方式或伴隨情況等。例如:

1) 表示時間

The meeting being over, all of us went home.
開完會后我們都回家了。
the meeting being over相當于when the meeting was over

Her work done, she sat down for a cup of tea.
她干完了活,坐下來喝茶。
her work done相當于when her work was done

2) 表示條件

The condition being favorable, he may succeed.
若條件有利,他或許能成功。
the condition being favorable相當于If the condition is favorable

3) 表示原因

There being no taxis, we had to walk.
沒有出租車,我們只好步行。
There being no taxis相當于Since there was no taxis,

He wrapped her up with great care, the night being dark and frosty.
夜又黑又冷,所以他把她裹得嚴嚴實實的。
the night being dark and frosty相當于as the night was dark and frosty

4) 表示伴隨情況

Almost all metals are good conductors, silver being the best of all.
幾乎所有的金屬都是良導體,而銀則是最好的導體。
(=Almost all metals are good conductors, and silver is the best of all.)

5) 表示補充說明

We redoubled our efforts, each man working like two.
我們加倍努力,一個人干兩個人的活。

獨立主格有以下常見的七個類型:

類型1:名詞(代詞)+現在分詞

We shall play the match tomorrow, weather permitting.
明天假設天氣好,我們就進行比賽。

The monitor being ill, we’d better put the meeting off.
班長病了,我們最好還是延期開會吧。

類型2:名詞(代詞)+過去分詞

The job finished, we went home.
工作結束后我們就回家了。

The last bus gone, we had to walk home.
最后一班公車已經走了,我們必須走路回家。

More time given, we should have done the job much better.
如果給我們更多的時間,我們會把工作做得更好。

類型3:名詞(代詞)+不定式

Nobody to come tomorrow, we will have to put off the meeting till next week.
如果明天沒有人來,我們將把會議推遲到下周。

So many people to help him, he is sure to succeed.
有如此多的人來幫助他,他一定會成功的。

類型4:名詞(代詞)+介詞短語

The soldiers dashed in, rifle in hand.
士兵們端著槍沖了進來。

A girl came in, book in hand.
一個少女進來了,手里拿著書。

He was waiting, his eyes on her back.
他在等著,眼睛望著她的背影。

類型5:名詞(代詞)+形容詞或副詞

He sat in the front row, his mouth half open.
他坐在前排,嘴半開著。

She sat at the table, collar off, head down, and pen in position, ready to begin the long letter.
她坐在桌前,衣領已解掉,頭低了下來,拿好鋼筆,準備開始寫一封長信。

類型6:There being +名詞(代詞)

There being nothing else to do, we went home.
沒有別的事可做,我們就回家了。

There being no further business, I declare the meeting closed.
沒有再要討論的事了,我宣布散會。

類型7:It being +名詞(代詞)

It being Christmas, the government offices were closed.
由于圣誕節的緣故,政府機關都休息。

It being a holiday, all the shops were shut.
由于今天是假日,所有商店都關門了。